Gross Anatomy of the Heart of Mature Philippine Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.)


  • Marjorie S. Maguigad Department of Morphophysiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Science and Medicine, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
  • Errol Jay Yuson Balagan Central Luzon State University



anatomy, Heart, morphology, morphometry, Philippine water buffalo


The gross morphology of the heart of mature Philippine water buffalo was described by determining the weight, length, width and circumference; measured the average external circumference of the pulmonary veins and artery, cranial and caudal vena cava and the aorta; determined the presence and location of ligamentum arteriosum; measured the thickness of the atrial and ventricular wall; described the components of the left and right atrioventricular valves, pulmonary valves and the aortic valves; determined the location and measured the length of trabeculae septomarginalis and determined the location of the os cordis. Hearts of ten mature Philippine water buffalo of both sexes were collected from abattoirs of Cabanatuan City. The absolute and relative weights of the heart were measured using digital weighing scale. Different dimensions like circumferences, length, and width of the heart; the external circumferences of major blood vessels; and the thickness of the wall of heart were determined using measuring tape and Vernier caliper. The number of cusps present in the left and right atrioventricular, pulmonary, and aortic valves was counted and the presence of ligamentum arteriosum was documented. Radiograph was used to determine the presence and location of os cordis. All of the hearts studied were pointed and bilaterally flattened. The base of the heart is markedly surrounded with fatty tissues. The mean absolute weight is 2.42 kg. The heart has a mean dimension of 21.71 cm x 17.49 cm. The mean circumference at the level of the coronary groove, middle and apex were 48.41 cm, 44.10 cm and 20.57 cm, respectively. An average of four pulmonary veins was documented to be present. The right ventricle has a constant three papillary muscles and three cusps while the left ventricle has a constant two papillary muscles and two cusps. The number of cusps of both pulmonary valve and aortic valve was three. Ligamentum arteriosum was present in all samples and it is located between the pulmonary trunk and aorta. The os cordis which is located at the aortic fibrous ring is present in all heart of Philippine water buffalo examined.

Author Biography

Errol Jay Yuson Balagan, Central Luzon State University

Department of Morphophysiology and Pharmacology Assistant Professor II